Diabetes, Blood Pressure Meds, and COVID -19…

What to Know About Diabetes, Blood Pressure Meds and COVID-19

Medical experts say it’s key to not stop your medications without talking to your physician. Getty Imageshttps://www.healthline.com/health-news/can-common-diabetes-blood-pressure-meds-make-covid-19-worse-what-we-know?slot_pos=article_1&utm_source=Sailthru%20Email&utm_medium=Email&utm_campaign=diabetes&utm_content=2020-04-09&apid=10209075
  • The concern began after a study in The LancetTrusted Source stated that ibuprofen boosts the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which may facilitate and worsen COVID-19.
  • The World Health Organization warned most patients to stick with acetaminophen. Now they say they do not advise against using ibuprofen.
  • Most cardiologists advise patients to stay on their medications.

Could people on certain medications for hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes be at risk for experiencing COVID-19 more severely?

The question raises more concerns about which medications may make COVID-19 worse in some people. It follows reports that ibuprofen could do more harm than good in patients with COVID-19.CORONAVIRUS UPDATESStay on top of the COVID-19 outbreak

Understanding the theory

The concern began after a study in The LancetTrusted Source stated that ibuprofen boosts the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which may facilitate and worsen COVID-19.

As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) originally warned most patients to stick with acetaminophen, which is also known as paracetamol. Now they say they do not advise against using ibuprofen.

The study explained that COVID-19 binds to ACE2 in order to target cells. Patients likely have increased ACE2 expression if they’re treated with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs) and thiazolidinediones. Those drugs are commonly taken by those with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Ibuprofen can also increase ACE2, the study noted.

Cardiovascular, diabetes drugs in question as well

While media reports focused on ibuprofen, many did not highlight the other drug warnings in the journal article.

“We therefore hypothesize that diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension treatment with ACE2-stimulating drugs increases the risk of developing severe and fatal COVID-19,” the authors wrote. They said patients with cardiac diseases, hypertension, or diabetes who use drugs that increase ACE2 could be at higher risk for severe COVID-19 and, therefore, should be monitored.

In a separate article, lead author Dr. Michael Roth-Chiarello, who heads up a pulmonary cell research unit at the University Hospital of Basel in Switzerland, said that there needs to be more research into the use of ACE inhibitors in those with COVID-19. He did not respond to a request for comment.

Doctors: Evidence lacking

So, are patients on some hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes drugs at risk for more severe COVID-19?

This speculation about the safety of ACE or ARB treatment in relation to COVID-19 “does not have a sound scientific basis or evidence to support it,” Jared Van Hooser, assistant professor in the department of pharmacy practice and pharmaceutical sciences at the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy and a clinical pharmacist at St. Luke’s Mount Royal Medical Clinic, told Healthline.

“Should people be aware that there is a possibility COVID-19 could be more severe in those with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes? Yes, they should be aware, but the research is not definitive,” Van Hooser said.

The Council on Hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology has stated there’s a lack of any evidence supporting harmful effects of ACE and ARB with regard to COVID-19.

“[We] strongly recommend that physicians and patients should continue treatment with their usual antihypertensive therapy because there is no clinical or scientific evidence to suggest that treatment with ACEi or ARBs should be discontinued because of the COVID-19 infection,” the organization said in a statement.

Further research is needed to evaluate interactions between ACE inhibitor drugs and the virus that causes COVID-19. Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, has expressed support for further research in this area.

“There have been worse COVID-19 in patients on treatment for some chronic diseases like hypertension, but it’s impossible right now to separate whether this is due to the underlying disease versus the drugs being used,” explained Dr. Otto O. Yang, a professor of infectious diseases at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, told Healthline.

Rory Remmel, Ph.D., a professor at the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy, cited the BMJ report that said patients taking lisinopril or angiotensin receptor blocking agents such as losartan could have increased ACE2 Trusted Source in the lungs. ACE2, the study authors noted, could make COVID-19 worse.

But there’s a flip side.

“Interestingly, losartan is one of the medically approved drugs that is being tested for treatment of COVID-19 on the theory that it will block viral entry,” he told Healthline. The virus binds to ACE2, but losartan blocks ACE2 from entering cells — making it a potential therapy.

Dr. James Louis Januzzi, a cardiologist at Massachusetts General Hospital, said people need to be careful about getting medical advice from anyone other than their own doctors.

“Don’t believe the misinformation that is going on out there,” he said. “Everyone is scared and wants to provide rapid, useful information to people.”

“Unless and until prospective randomized data are available, people should not assume anything they read is true, and they should speak to their physician if they have questions,” Januzzi added.

Stay on your meds, doctors warn

Most cardiologists — including the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and Heart Failure Society of America — advise patients to stay on their medications.

“People should not stop taking their medications unless directed by a healthcare professional,” Van Hooser said. “We want to avoid a knee-jerk reaction to something that does not have evidence or very limited evidence.”

Concerned about taking these medications and getting COVID-19? Dr. Michael Miller, a cardiologist, and professor at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, said to stay on your medications and talk to your doctor about concerns.

“We are not recommending that our patients stop taking these medications,” he told Healthline.

The only way a doctor would recommend stopping the medication is if the patient has complications from COVID-19, Miller said.

“However, if they develop COVID-19 and have complications that result in significant hypotension, ACE inhibitors will almost invariably be temporarily discontinued,” he noted.

Stay on your medications, Januzzi echoed.

“It actually could be harmful to stop these meds abruptly,” Januzzi said. “To be explicitly clear, we have no good, prospective comparative data to suggest taking drugs like ACE inhibitors is harmful or beneficial relative to COVID-19 infection.”

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How Long Does Corona Virus Stay Around On things And In The Air?

We all know by now that coronavirus is incredibly contagious. And you’ve certainly heard the very important guidelines on how best to avoid the spread of COVID-19: 1) Wash your hands, 2) Avoid touching your face, 2) Maintain social distance, and 4) Keep your home surfaces clean and disinfect frequently. But which surfaces are most conducive for COVID-19, and therefore, most important to disinfect? If you’ve been wondering how long coronavirus can stay on plastic water bottles, cardboard boxes, and other household items you’re encountering every day, a brand-new study published in the New England Journal of Medicine has the answers.

Scientists from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UCLA, and Princeton University attempted to mimic the coronavirus being deposited from an infected person onto everyday surfaces (like through coughing or touching objects). Then they investigated how long the virus remained infectious on those surfaces. Here’s what they found.

1Plastic: Up to 3 days

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Plastic surfaces are one of the most conducive for coronavirus. The study shows that the virus can live for up to 72 hours on plastic.

So any plastic surfaces you have in your home—cutting boards, shampoo bottles, kitchen utensils, etc.—should be your highest priority to keep clean.

2Stainless Steel: Up to 3 days

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What kitchen isn’t complete without stainless steel appliances? Unfortunately though, stainless steel surfaces are also very conducive to coronavirus, as the study shows that it can live for up to 72 hours on your refrigerator and dishwasher handles and stainless steel cookware as well.

3Cardboard: Up to 24 hours

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Those Amazon boxes laying around your garage and front door? Turns out they present a furtive place for coronavirus to exist. According to the study, coronavirus can live on cardboard for up to 24 hours. That also means your paper towel and toilet paper rolls can contain the virus for the same amount of time.

4Copper: Up to 4 hours

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Copper is not the most common surface in one’s home, and fortunately, pennies are now mostly made from zinc. But how conducive is copper for coronavirus? Not very. The study shows that the virus can live on copper for up to four hours.

5The air: Up to 3 hours

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Of course, air is not a surface. But “aerosol” transmission of coronavirus has been something of a controversy. The World Health Organization (WHO) has claimed that “COVID-19 is mainly transmitted through contact with respiratory droplets rather than through the air.” But liquid particulates of COVID-19 do continue to live in the air for up to three hours, according to this study.

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Myths You May Have Heard About Corona Virus

The COVID-19 pandemic has created a seemingly endless list of tips to follow to stay safe, but there are just as many mistruths and myths about coronavirus out there. Washing one’s hands and limiting contact with as many people as possible (AKA social distancing) are still the best ways to both stay healthy and not spread the virus. But a stubborn amount of misinformation is spreading just as fast as COVID-19 itself.

To help you stay educated, the World Health Organization (WHO) and numerous other reputable medical institutions, such as Johns Hopkins Medicine, are debunking the myths surrounding COVID-19. Here are the 15 biggest ones you need to stop believing.

1Myth: There’s a coronavirus vaccine out there.

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There is no vaccine for the coronavirus currently available. According to the experts at Johns Hopkins: “There is no vaccine for the new coronavirus right now. Scientists have already begun working on one but developing a vaccine that is safe and effective in human beings will take many months.”

How long exactly? According to Anthony Fauci, MD, the head of National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases, 12 to 18 months. Fauci said in an Instagram Live interview with NBA star Steph Curry that the first phase of vaccine testing takes three to four months and the second takes eight months, totaling a year to a year and a half.

“The first thing you’ve got to do is make sure it’s safe. When you find out it’s safe and that it induces the kind of response you want it to, then you do it in a lot of people,” Fauci said. “The first trial is, like, 45 people. Then you go into hundreds, if not thousands, of people. That’s what takes the extra eight months… If we really push, we hope that we will know by the time we get into next winter whether or not we have something that works.”

2Myth: COVID-19 was deliberately created and released by people.

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As those at Johns Hopkins plainly state, this myth is 100-percent false. “Viruses can change over time,” the experts continue. “Occasionally, a disease outbreak happens when a virus that is common in an animal such as a pig, bat, or bird undergoes changes and passes to humans. This is likely how the new coronavirus came to be.”

3Myth: If you can hold your breath for 10 seconds, you don’t have coronavirus.

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Despite what you may have seen on social media, being able to hold your breath for 10 seconds or more without coughing or feeling discomfort does not mean you don’t have COVID-19 or any other lung disease.

According to WHO, “The best way to confirm if you have the virus producing COVID-19 disease is with a laboratory test. You cannot confirm it with this breathing exercise, which can even be dangerous.”

4Myth: Ordering products from China could give you COVID-19.

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COVID-19 is mainly spread through liquid droplets. So while it’s technically possible that a product ordered from China could house a virus-infected bit of liquid, the odds of that happening are almost impossible.

“I don’t think we need to get completely obsessed about packages that come in, because those types of surfaces… the virus might live there for a very short time,” Fauci told Trevor Noah on the Mar. 26 episode of Noah’s at-home The Daily Show. “But people say, ‘Should I get a package from a grocery store that says, “Made in China”?’ I wouldn’t worry about that. That’s not the issue.”

5Myth: A change in temperature can kill coronavirus.

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According to WHO, “There is no reason to believe that cold weather can kill the new coronavirus or other diseases.” And they also note, “you can catch COVID-19, no matter how sunny or hot the weather is.”

“The virology of COVID-19 does not diminish in warm temperatures,” Rocio Salas-Whalen, MD, of New York Endocrinology previously told Best Life. “Although the virus may have a seasonal cycle, it is not reasonable to expect a huge decline in transmission due to warmer weather alone. We see the largest decrease in infections when people refrain from being in locations with poor ventilation and/or large crowds.”

6Myth: Taking a hot bath will protect you against coronavirus.

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There may be relaxing benefits to a hot bath, but it won’t keep you from contracting coronavirus. “Taking a hot bath will not prevent you from catching COVID-19,” WHO asserts. “Your normal body temperature remains around 36.5°C to 37°C, regardless of the temperature of your bath or shower.”

7Myth: Mosquitoes can pass coronavirus from person to person.

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There is no evidence to suggest that coronavirus can spread via mosquitoes, according to WHO. “The new coronavirus is a respiratory virus which spreads primarily through droplets generated when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose,” the experts note.

8Myth: Bleach, silver solution, and garlic can protect you from coronavirus.

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There are a ton of scams that have arisen in the past few weeks, leading to a flurry of complaints from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). There have been false claims that drinkable silver, gargling with bleach, and garlic soup can help you avoid COVID-19. Long story short, if something sounds too good to be true, then it almost certainly is. Washing your hands and limiting contact with others are still the best ways to avoid getting sick.

9Myth: Drinking alcohol can prevent you from contracting COVID-19.

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Some people believe that drinking alcohol will prevent them from contracting coronavirus—so many, in fact, that WHO had to address it and debunk the myth.

It turns out, the opposite is actually true. Paul Sasha Nestadt, MD, co-director of the Johns Hopkins Anxiety Disorders Clinic, told Global Health Now, “There are risk factors with isolation, the lack of a schedule, and if alcohol is just there in the house with you. People with depression, anxiety, and substance abuse are also at higher risk when stressed.”

10Myth: Aiming a blow dryer up your nose can cure you of coronavirus.

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There are some people who believe that aiming a hairdryer up your nose will cure you from COVID-19. In fact, Florida politician Bryant Culpepper went so far as to brag about his background as a paramedic as he publicly promoted this “cure” that he saw “one of the foremost doctors who has studied the coronavirus” reveal on cable TV. The belief is that the hot air travels up into your nostrils and kills the contagion. But, as you likely already assumed, this “cure” is just a bunch of hot hair. Hairdryers are good for drying hair, not curing or preventing coronavirus.

11Myth: Hand dryers kill COVID-19.

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Just like hairdryers don’t kill COVID-19, hand dryers don’t either. WHO plainly states: “Hand dryers are not effective in killing the 2019-nCoV.” Washing your hands regularly, however, is a definite must. And if you want to know how to wash your hands effectively, check out The Best Way to Wash Your Hands to Prevent Getting Sick.

12Myth: Drinking lots of water will help you avoid COVID-19.

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Drinking lots of water through the course of the day is good for you, but will it help you avoid coronavirus? Nope. A frequently shared meme on Facebook, Twitter, and on text cites an unnamed Japanese doctor who claims drinking water every 15 minutes washes any virus down the esophagus so it can’t get into your lungs. Turns out, this isn’t true at all. Sure, it’s good to hydrate, but it won’t keep the COVID-19 contagion away.

13Myth: Essential oils and herbal supplements are effective ways to fight coronavirus.

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Nope, essential oils do not prevent coronavirus either. But that hasn’t stopped a few companies from trying to sell their products as such. The FDA called out Idaho-based company Herbal Amy for selling “unapproved and misbranded products related to coronavirus disease.” Whether it’s traditional Chinese herbs or CBD/hemp related supplements, there is currently zero evidence that herb consumption will do anything to fight or cure COVID-19

14Myth: UV disinfection lamps can kill coronavirus.

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Again, WHO warns, this is yet another coronavirus myth. “UV lamps should not be used to sterilize hands or other areas of skin as UV radiation can cause skin irritation,” they note.

15Myth: Malaria drugs can cure COVID-19.

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“To date, there is no specific medicine recommended to prevent or treat the new coronavirus,” WHO says plainly. Sadly, a man in his 60s in Arizona died after self-medicating with chloroquine phosphate in an apparent attempt to cure himself from the novel coronavirus. He and his wife reportedly ingested the household chemical, which is commonly used to clean fish tanks, in late March amid reports that hydroxychloroquine—which is approved by the FDA for treating malaria, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis—can cure coronavirus.

Responding to the incident, Daniel Brooks, MD, Banner Poison and Drug Information Center medical director, said in a statement, “We understand that people are trying to find new ways to prevent or treat this virus. But self-medicating is not the way to do so.”

Similarly, Fauci told Noah that “there is no proven, safe, and effective direct therapy for coronavirus disease.” And though some clinical trials are underway, it’ll be months before anything is proven.

Additional reporting by Alex Daniel.

Thank you for reading 🙂

Corona Virus Fact Continued…

Coronavirus has cousins.

Slide 5 of 14: According to an article from the Coronavirus Study Group (CSG) of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, which has not yet been peer reviewed, COVID-19 is a variant of the coronavirus that caused the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003. As a result, its official name is: severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2. It's also a relative of the coronavirus Middle East respiratory syndrome, also known as MERS, which surfaced in the Middle East beginning in 2012. And for simple ways to keep yourself safe from coronavirus, check out 17 Small and Easy Ways to Prevent Coronavirus.

According to an article from the Coronavirus Study Group (CSG) of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, which has not yet been peer-reviewed, COVID-19 is a variant of the coronavirus that caused the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003. As a result, its official name is: severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2. It’s also a relative of the coronavirus Middle East respiratory syndrome, also known as MERS, which surfaced in the Middle East beginning in 2012. And for simple ways to keep yourself safe from coronavirus, check out 17 Small and Easy Ways to Prevent Coronavirus.

Thank you for reading 🙂

Corona virus Fact Continued…

 It won’t diminish in warm temperatures

Slide 4 of 14: Since most associate the regular flu season with the colder months of the year, many assume that COVID-19 will taper off as temperatures rise. But Salas-Whalen emphasizes that it's not as simple as that."Unfortunately, the virology of COVID-19 does not diminish in warm temperatures," she says. "Although the virus may have a seasonal cycle, it is not reasonable to expect a huge decline in transmission due to warmer weather alone. We see the largest decrease in infections when people refrain from being in locations with poor ventilation and/or large crowds."

Since most associate the regular flu season with the colder months of the year, many assume that COVID-19 will taper off as temperatures rise. But Salas-Whalen emphasizes that it’s not as simple as that.

“Unfortunately, the virology of COVID-19 does not diminish in warm temperatures,” she says. “Although the virus may have a seasonal cycle, it is not reasonable to expect a huge decline in transmission due to warmer weather alone. We see the largest decrease in infections when people refrain from being in locations with poor ventilation and/or large crowds.”

Thank you for reading 🙂

Pre-existing Conditions Will…

MAKE IT HARDER TO FIGHT CORONAVIRUS

Early data from China, where the new coronavirus COVID-19 first started, shows that some people are at higher risk of serious health complications from the new coronavirus. Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), this includes people who have serious chronic medical conditions like heart disease, diabetes, lung disease, and mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety. 

Here’s why these conditions increase the risk for COVID-19 complications—and what you should do if you’re affected. 

Heart disease

People with heart disease tend to have other underlying conditions like high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol, diabetes, and lung disease, which weaken the body’s health defense systems (including the immune system) against viral infection, William Li, MD, physician-scientist, and author of Eat To Beat Disease: The New Science of How Your Body Can Heal Itself, tells Health.

“The fever associated with COVID-19 puts additional strain on the body’s metabolic demands, stressing out the already weakened heart,” explains Dr. Li. “Pneumonia, which is commonly seen with COVID-19, makes it harder for the lungs to oxygenate the blood. This puts further stress on the heart.” Plus, inflammation caused by the infection can damage the lining of blood vessels through which the heart pumps blood. 

In February, the American College of Cardiology issued a bulletin to warn patients about the potential increased risk of COVID-19 that included additional precautions to take. The bulletin recommends that people with cardiovascular disease stay up to date with vaccinations, including for pneumonia, and get a flu shot to prevent another source of fever. 

Dr. Li advises regular exercise (while social distancing, of course) and a healthy diet to help strengthen the heart during the COVID-19 era. 

Chronic respiratory disease

Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs), which include asthma and pulmonary hypertension, are diseases of the airways and other parts of the lung. People with CRDs need to be especially vigilant about the coronavirus because one of the possible complications is pneumonia. “Pneumonia compromises the lung, which brings oxygen to the body,” explains Dr. Li. “In patients who already have a chronic respiratory disease, it can be lethal.” 

Besides following the CDC guidelines for handwashing, social distancing, and other coronavirus preventive steps, The COPD Foundation has issued further advice for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (such as chronic bronchitis or emphysema). As reported in Pulmonary Advisor, this includes having at least a 30-day supply of all required medications on hand. If a patient requires an oxygen supply, they should contact their supplier to find out how to prepare for a COVID-19 outbreak in their area. 

Diabetes

Last week, actor Tom Hanks revealed on Instagram that he and his wife, Rita Wilson, tested positive for COVID-19. Hanks previously shared that he has type 2 diabetes, which means he’s at an increased risk of serious illness from the new coronavirus. 

What makes the coronavirus so dangerous for people with diabetes? First, because the immune system is compromised, it’s harder for the body to fight off the coronavirus, states the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF). Viruses also may thrive when blood glucose levels are high. 

People with diabetes have heightened levels of inflammation throughout their bodies, which is another risk factor. “If you have a viral infection, that can turn into pneumonia easier, because diabetes itself is an inflammatory disease,” Maria Pena, MD, director of endocrine services at Mount Sinai Doctors Forest Hills, previously told Health. “It’s also important to note that when a person has diabetes, episodes of stress, like a viral infection, can increase blood sugar levels, which can also lead to complications.”

Everyone should be taking precautionary measures during the COVID-19 outbreak (whether they have preexisting health conditions or not), and the IDF says it’s even more crucial for those living with diabetes. That means washing your hands thoroughly and frequently, avoiding touching your face as much as possible, cleaning and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces, and avoiding close contact with those showing symptoms of a respiratory illness.

The IDF also recommends additional precautionary steps for those with diabetes. Monitoring blood glucose levels should be a priority, because any kind of infection can raise blood sugar levels. This increases the need for water, so it’s important to have an adequate supply. To prepare for a quarantine, make sure you have enough medication, testing supplies, and food to last for at least a month. 

People with diabetes should be particularly careful about social contact. “As a diabetic, I would avoid supermarkets or other public gatherings,” Dr. Pena said. 

Depression and anxiety

COVID-19 doesn’t only affect people with pre-existing physical conditions—it can have a serious impact on those with mental health issues, like anxiety and depression, even if you are not infected with the coronavirus.

“Fear of the virus and all the changes it’s causing are driving anxiety levels up for everyone, but for people who have an anxiety disorder it’s so much worse,” Gail Saltz, MD, associate professor of psychiatry at the NY Presbyterian Hospital Weill-Cornell School of medicine and host of the upcoming Personology podcast from iHeartRadio, tells Health. Dr. Saltz warns that people who have managed their disorder may relapse, and those actively struggling may be much more symptomatic. 

“Anxiety also worsens depression, particularly those whose depression is of the ‘agitated’ variety, a subtype of the illness characterized by jittery, anxious, irritable behavior,” she adds. 

People with anxiety or depression who are at home with someone who has COVID-19 may find the burden of caregiving to cause their mental health to deteriorate further. “Caregiving is very stressful,” says Dr. Saltz. “In many cases it’s a 24/7 role and for those already struggling, it can be overwhelming.” She adds that social distancing, quarantining, and losing the structure of work or school can also increase symptoms of both anxiety and depression by increasing feelings of loneliness. 

By actively focusing on mental health, however, those symptoms can be reduced. Dr. Saltz recommends exercising for 30 minutes each day and trying relaxation techniques like deep breathing and mindfulness to help keep anxiety at bay.

It’s also important to have a structure in your day, even if you’re self-isolating or in quarantine, she says. This means getting up at the same time as you normally would, taking a shower, getting dressed, creating and sticking to a schedule, and maintaining normal sleep. If you work from home, make a dedicated workstation. 

If you need professional help, it’s still there for you even if you can’t get to the doctor’s office. “Most therapists are moving to online sessions to accommodate their patients,” says Dr. Saltz. If you take medication for your mental health, make sure you have a 30-day supply. 

Loneliness is an issue for people in all age groups, and even if you don’t have mental health issues yourself, you probably know someone who does. “Check in with those you know who are also self-isolating,” says Dr. Saltz says. “Talking to and supporting others is likely to make you feel better as well.” 

The information in this story is accurate as of press time. However, as the situation surrounding COVID-19 continues to evolve, it’s possible that some data have changed since publication. While Health is trying to keep our stories as up-to-date as possible, we also encourage readers to stay informed on news and recommendations for their own communities by using the CDCWHO, and their local public health department as resources.

Thank you for reading 🙂