Hispanic Heritage Month, What is it?

https://www.history.com/topics/hispanic-history/hispanic-heritage-monthhttp://Hispanic heritage Month

https://www.hispanicheritagemonth.gov/

The idea for Hispanic Heritage Month, celebrated throughout the latter half of September and the first half of October, began as a way to promote the history, culture, and contributions of Hispanic-Americans — specifically, those whose ancestors came from Spain, Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. Communities mark the achievements of Hispanic and Latino Americans with festivals and educational activities.

https://nationaltoday.com/hispanic-heritage-month/#:~:text=Every%20year%20from%20September%2015%20to%20October%2015%2C,Spain%

5 HISPANIC HERITAGE HIGHLIGHTS

A special dateHispanic Heritage Month starts in the middle of the month to correspond with the independence of many countries like Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Mexico, and Chile.

Going strongHispanic and Latino Americans amount to an estimated 17.8% of the total U.S. population, making up the largest ethnic minority.

And the winner is…Oscar Hijuelos, author of “The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love,” was the first Hispanic writer to win a Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.

English proficiencyThe Latinos in the U.S. who speak English proficiently is increasing.

Difference of opinionUnlike the U.S., chicken tacos are not popular in Mexico. There, they prefer to fill their tacos with steak, chicharron, and chorizo.

https://nationaltoday.com/

Hispanic Heritage Month is an annual celebration of the history and culture of the U.S. Latinx and Hispanic communities. The event, which spans from September 15 to October 15, commemorates how those communities have influenced and contributed to American society at large.

The term Hispanic or Latino (or the more recent term Latinx) refers to a person’s culture or origin—regardless of race. On the 2020 Census form, people were counted as Hispanic or Latino or Spanish if they could identify as having Mexican, Mexican American, Chicano, Puerto Rican, Cuban, or “another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin.”

James Garrett/NY Daily News Archive via Getty Images
Immigrants celebrating traditional festival of San Juan, in New York City, 1962.
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On This Day In History

On This Day in History – Historic Events & Notable People


Famous Birthdays

Tomorrow’s Famous Birthdays

This Day IN History, July 27th

Important Events

  • 1542 Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo sets sail from the Mexican port of Navidad to explore the west coast of North America on behalf of the Spanish Empire
  • 1693 1st women’s magazine “Ladies’ Mercury” published (London)
  • 1743 War of the Austrian Succession: Battle of Dettingen: in Bavaria, King George II of Britain personally leads troops into battle. The last time a British monarch commanded troops in the field.
  • 1929 1st color TV demo, performed by Bell Laboratories in NYC
  • 1950 North Korean troops reach Seoul, UN asks members to aid South Korea, Harry Truman orders US Air Force & Navy into the Korean conflict
  • 1954 1st atomic power station opens – Obninsk, near Moscow in Russia
  • 678 St Agatho begins his reign as Catholic Pope
  • The 1358 Republic of Dubrovnik is founded

Some Famous Birthdays On This Day

From Way Back

  • 1040 Ladislaus I, King of Hungary, born in the Kingdom of Poland (d. 1095)
  • 1350 Manuel II Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (1391-1425) (d. 1425)
  • 1462 Louis XII, the Just, King of France (1498-1515), born in Château de Blois, France (d. 1515)
  • 1550 Charles IX [Carl], King of France (1560-74), born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France (d. 1574)
  • 1615 Johann Paul Schor, German Baroque painter, born in Innsbruck, Austria (d. 1674)
  • 1696 William Pepperrell, British colonial soldier, born in Kittery, Maine (d. 1759)
  • 1717 Louis Guillaume Lemonnier, French botanist and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, born in Paris (d. 1799)
  • 1718 Wenzel Raimund Pirck, composer, born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1763)
  • 1745 Johann Nepomuk Went, Bohemian composer, born in Vinařice, Czech Republic (d. 1801)
  • 1787 Thomas Say, American naturalist and father of descriptive entomology, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1834)
  • 1789 Philipp Friedrich Silcher, German composer, born in Weinstadt, Germany (d. 1860)
  • 1805 Stephen Elvey, English composer, born in Canterbury, Kent, England (d. 1860)
  • 1806 Napoléon Coste, French guitarist and composer, born in Besançon, France (d. 1883)
  • 1809 François Certain Canrobert, French marshal and parliament member, born in Saint-Céré, France (d. 1895)
  • 1812 John Pike Hullah, English composer, born in Worcester (d. 1884)
  • 1819 Carl Albert Löschhorn, German composer, born in Berlin, Germany (d. 1905)
  • 1821 August Conradi, German organist, and composer, born in Berlin (d. 1873)
  • 1828 Junius Daniel, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Halifax, North Carolina (d. 1864)
  • 1833 Władysław Zaremba, Ukrainian composer, born in Dunajowce, Ukraine (d 1902)
  • 1838 Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Indian novelist (Anandamath), born in Naihati, Bengal Presidency, British India (d. 1894)
  • 1838 Paul Mauser, German weapon designer, born in Oberndorf am Neckar, Kingdom of Württemberg (d. 1914)
  • 1842 Jamie Anderson, Scottish golfer (British Open 1877-79), born in St. Andrews, Fife (d. 1905)
  • 1846 Charles Stewart Parnell, English-Irish Home Rule Party leader, born in Avondale, County Wicklow, Ireland (d. 1891)
  • 1849 Harriet Hubbard Ayer, American cosmetics manufacturer and columnist, born in Chicago (d. 1903)
  • 1850 Ivan Vazov, Bulgarian poet, novelist and playwright (Under the Yoke), born in Sopot, Bulgaria (d. 1921)
  • 1850 Jacob Adolf Hägg, Swedish composer, born in Östergarn, Sweden (d. 1928)
  • 1850 Lafcadio Hearn, American author (Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan), born in Leucas, Greece (d. 1904)
  • 1850 Jørgen Pedersen Gram, Danish mathematician (Gram–Schmidt process), born in Duchy of Schleswig, Denmark (d. 1919)
  • 1859 Mildred J. Hill, American composer and musician (Happy Birthday To You), born in Louisville, Kentucky (d. 1916)
  • 1862 May Irwin, Canadian comedienne and singer (Hot Time in the Old Town), born in Whitby, Ontario, Canada (d. 1938)
  • 1869 Emma Goldman, American anarchist and publisher (Mother Earth), born in Kovno, Lithuania, Russian Empire (d. 1940)
  • 1869 Kate Carew [Mary Williams], American caricaturist, born in Oakland, California (d. 1961)
  • 1869 Hans Spemann, German embryologist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935), born in Stuttgart, Germany (d. 1941)
  • 1985 Nico Rosberg, German Finnish race car driver (F1 World Champion 2016), born in Wiesbaden, West Germany
  • 1985 James Hook, Welsh rugby player, born in Port Talbot, Wales

Closer To Present Day

1986 LaShawn Merritt, American sprinter, born in Portsmouth, Virginia

1986 Drake Bell, American actor, voice actor, and musician, born in Newport Beach, California

1987 Ed Westwick, English actor (Gossip Girl), born in London, England

1988 Kate Ziegler, American swimmer, born in Fairfax, Virginia

1989 Matthew Lewis, English actor (The Syndicate), born in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England

1990 Aselin Debison, Canadian singer (Bigger than me), born in Glace Bay, Canada

1991 Madylin Sweeten, American actress (Everybody Loves Raymond), born in Brownwood, Texas

1999 Chandler Riggs, American actor (The Walking Dead), born in Atlanta, Georgia


QUIZ

  • In which country was the world’s oldest parliament established this week in 930 AD?
    • EnglandEngland
    • ItalyItaly
    • IcelandIceland
    • United States of AmericaUnited States of America
  • Who was the 1st African American to be nominated for US President?
    • Frederick DouglassFrederick Douglass
    • Booker T. WashingtonBooker T. Washington
    • James Weldon JohnsonJames Weldon Johnson
    • Marcus GarveyMarcus Garvey
  • What medical advance was made available to the US public this week in 1960?United States of America
    • Polio Vaccine
    • Contraceptive pill
    • Ultrasound
    • Measles vaccine
  • Who is this British person, a major figure in WWI, and born this week in 1850?Horatio Kitchener
    • John French
    • David Lloyd George
    • Horatio Kitchener
    • Douglas Haig
  • What is the American town of Yerba Buena, site of the 1st European building on the west coast now known as?California
    • San Diego
    • Los Angeles
    • Seattle
    • San Francisco
  • Which classic sci-fi film directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford was released this week in 1982?Harrison Ford
    • Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back
    • Alien
    • Blade Runner
    • Poltergeist
  • Which composer wrote the opera The Valkyrie, which premiered in 1870, featuring the famous “Ride of the Valkyries”?
    • Richard WagnerRichard Wagner
    • Giacomo PucciniGiacomo Puccini
    • Giuseppe VerdiGiuseppe Verdi
    • Igor StravinskyIgor Stravinsky
  • Who delivered their famous speech this week in West Berlin in 1963 by announcing “Ich bin ein Berliner”?
    • Angela MerkelAngela Merkel
    • Nikita KhrushchevNikita Khrushchev
    • John F. KennedyJohn F. Kennedy
    • Harold MacmillanHarold Macmillan
  • What year did the US Supreme Court rule in favor of same-sex marriage?Very Rare Photo of the Supreme Court
    • 2013
    • 2014
    • 2015
    • 2016
  • Finnish author and artist Tove Jansson died this week in 2001, what series of books is she famous for?
    • Madeline series
    • Paddington Bear
    • Barbar the elephant
    • The Moomins
  • Your Score


    • People find this quiz a good challenge! Try Another Weekly History Quiz

This Day In History~

MAY 22

A thousand pioneers head West as part of the Great Emigration

The first major wagon train to the northwest departs from Elm Grove, Missouri, on the Oregon Trail.

Although U.S. sovereignty over the Oregon Territory was not clearly established until 1846, American fur trappers and missionary groups had been living in the region for decades. Dozens of books and lectures proclaimed Oregon’s agricultural potential, tweaking the interest of American farmers. The first overland immigrants to Oregon, intending primarily to farm, came in 1841 when a small band of 70 pioneers left Independence, Missouri. They followed a route blazed by fur traders, which took them west along the Platte River through the Rocky Mountains via the easy South Pass in Wyoming and then northwest to the Columbia River. In the years to come, pioneers came to call the route the Oregon Trail.

In 1842, a slightly larger group of 100 pioneers made the 2,000-mile journey to Oregon. The next year, however, the number of emigrants skyrocketed to 1,000. The sudden increase was a product of severe depression in the Midwest combined with a flood of propaganda from fur traders, missionaries, and government officials extolling the virtues of the land. Farmers dissatisfied with their prospects in Ohio, Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee, hoped to find better lives in the supposed paradise of Oregon.

READ MORE: 9 Things You May Not Know About the Oregon Trail

On this day in 1843, some 1,000 men, women, and children climbed aboard their wagons and steered their horses west out of the small town of Elm Grove, Missouri. The train comprised more than 100 wagons with a herd of 5,000 oxen and cattle trailing behind. Dr. Elijah White, a Presbyterian missionary who had made the trip the year before, served as guide.

The first section of the Oregon Trail ran through the relatively flat country of the Great Plains. Obstacles were few, though the river crossings could be dangerous for wagons. The danger of Indian attacks was a small but genuine risk. To be on the safe side, the pioneers drew their wagons into a circle at night to create a makeshift stockade. If they feared Indians might raid their livestock—the Plains tribes valued the horses, though generally ignored the oxen—they would drive the animals into the enclosure.

Although many neophyte pioneers believed Indians were their greatest threat, they quickly learned that they were more likely to be injured or killed by a host of more mundane causes. Obstacles included accidental discharge of firearms, falling off mules or horses, drowning in river crossings, and disease. After entering the mountains, the trail also became much more difficult, with steep ascents and descents over rocky terrain. The pioneers risked injury from overturned and runaway wagons.

Yet, as with the 1,000-person party that made the journey in 1843, the vast majority of pioneers on the trail survived to reach their destination in the fertile, well-watered land of western Oregon. The migration of 1844 was smaller than that of the previous season, but in 1845 it jumped to nearly 3,000. Thereafter, migration on the Oregon Trail was an annual event, although the practice of traveling in giant convoys of wagons gave way to many smaller bands of one or two-dozen wagons. The trail was heavily traveled until 1884, when the Union Pacific constructed a railway along the route.

READ MORE: Manifest Destiny 

Citation Information

Article Title

A thousand pioneers head West as part of the Great Emigration

Author

History.com Editors

Website Name

HISTORY

URL

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/a-thousand-pioneers-head-west-on-the-oregon-trail

Access Date

May 22, 2020

Publisher

A&E Television Networks

Last Updated

May 20, 2020

Original Published Date

November 16, 2009BY HISTORY.COM EDITORS

April Fool’s Day~

April Fools’ tradition popularized

On April 1, 1700, English pranksters begin popularizing the annual tradition of April Fools’ Day by playing practical jokes on each other.

Although the day, also called All Fools’ Day, has been celebrated for several centuries by diverse cultures, its exact origins remain a mystery.

Some historians speculate that April Fools’ Day dates to 1582, when France switched from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar, as called for by the Council of Trent in 1563. People who were slow to get the news or failed to recognize that the start of the new year had moved to January 1 and continued to celebrate it during the last week of March through April 1 became the butt of jokes and hoaxes.

These pranks included having paper fish placed on their backs and being referred to as poisson d’avril (April fish), said to symbolize a young, “easily hooked” fish and a gullible person.

April Fools’ Day spread throughout Britain during the 18th century. In Scotland, the tradition became a two-day event, starting with “hunting the gowk,” in which people were sent on phony errands (gowk is a word for cuckoo bird, a symbol for fool) and followed by Tailie Day, which involved pranks played on people’s derrieres, such as pinning fake tails or “kick me” signs on them.

URL

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/april-fools-tradition-popularized

This Day In History!

The Nuclear Disaster at Three Mile Island

At 4 a.m. on March 28, 1979, the worst accident in the history of the U.S. nuclear power industry begins when a pressure valve in the Unit-2 reactor at Three Mile Island fails to close. Cooling water, contaminated with radiation, drained from the open valve into adjoining buildings, and the core began to dangerously overheat.

The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant was built in 1974 on a sandbar on Pennsylvania’s Susquehanna River, just 10 miles downstream from the state capitol in Harrisburg. In 1978, a second state-of-the-art reactor began operating on Three Mile Island, which was lauded for generating affordable and reliable energy in a time of energy crises.

After the cooling water began to drain out of the broken pressure valve on the morning of March 28, 1979, emergency cooling pumps automatically went into operation. Left alone, these safety devices would have prevented the development of a larger crisis. However, human operators in the control room misread confusing and contradictory readings and shut off the emergency water system. The reactor was also shut down, but residual heat from the fission process was still being released. By early morning, the core had heated to over 4,000 degrees, just 1,000 degrees short of meltdown. In the meltdown scenario, the core melts, and deadly radiation drifts across the countryside, fatally sickening a potentially great number of people.

As the plant operators struggled to understand what had happened, the contaminated water was releasing radioactive gases throughout the plant. The radiation levels, though not immediately life-threatening, were dangerous, and the core cooked further as the contaminated water was contained and precautions were taken to protect the operators. Shortly after 8 a.m., word of the accident leaked to the outside world. The plant’s parent company, Metropolitan Edison, downplayed the crisis and claimed that no radiation had been detected off plant grounds, but the same day inspectors detected slightly increased levels of radiation nearby as a result of the contaminated water leak. Pennsylvania Governor Dick Thornburgh considered calling an evacuation.

Finally, at about 8 p.m., plant operators realized they needed to get water moving through the core again and restarted the pumps. The temperature began to drop, and pressure in the reactor was reduced. The reactor had come within less than an hour of a complete meltdown. More than half the core was destroyed or molten, but it had not broken its protective shell, and no radiation was escaping. The crisis was apparently over.

Two days later, however, on March 30, a bubble of highly flammable hydrogen gas was discovered within the reactor building. The bubble of gas was created two days before when exposed core materials reacted with super-heated steam. On March 28, some of this gas had exploded, releasing a small amount of radiation into the atmosphere. At that time, plant operators had not registered the explosion, which sounded like a ventilation door closing. After the radiation leak was discovered on March 30, residents were advised to stay indoors. Experts were uncertain if the hydrogen bubble would create further meltdown or possibly a giant explosion, and as a precaution, Governor Thornburgh advised: “pregnant women and pre-school age children to leave the area within a five-mile radius of the Three Mile Island facility until further notice.” This led to the panic the governor had hoped to avoid; within days, more than 100,000 people had fled surrounding towns.

On April 1, President Jimmy Carter arrived at Three Mile Island to inspect the plant. Carter, a trained nuclear engineer, had helped dismantle a damaged Canadian nuclear reactor while serving in the U.S. Navy. His visit achieved its aim of calming local residents and the nation. That afternoon, experts agreed that the hydrogen bubble was not in danger of exploding. Slowly, the hydrogen was bled from the system as the reactor cooled.

At the height of the crisis, plant workers were exposed to unhealthy levels of radiation, but no one outside Three Mile Island had their health adversely affected by the accident. Nonetheless, the incident greatly eroded the public’s faith in nuclear power. The unharmed Unit-1 reactor at Three Mile Island, which was shut down during the crisis, did not resume operation until 1985. Cleanup continued on Unit-2 until 1990, but it was too damaged to be rendered usable again. In the four decades since the accident at Three Mile Island, not a single new nuclear power plant has been ordered in the United States.

Citation Information

Article Title

Author

History.com Editors

URL

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/nuclear-accident-at-three-mile-island

Access Date

March 28, 2020

Publisher

A&E Television Networks

Last Updated

March 25, 2020

Original Published Date

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What is Kwanzaa?

History of Kwanzaa

Kwanzaa is a holiday tradition that is based on the “first harvest” celebrations in Africa. In recorded history, these first harvest celebrations can be traced all the way back to Nubia and Egypt and can be found in cultures all over Africa. While many of these first-fruit celebrations may differ from one society to another, they all had a few principles in common. These principles include people gathering together to celebrate, acknowledging the creator and thanking him for his blessings. a commemoration of the past, a re-commitment to African cultural thought and a time to celebrate community.

Rooted in these principles, especially those of the Ashanti and the Zulu, Kwanzaa arose from the Black Freedom Movement in 1966 in the United States. It was created by Dr. Maulana Karenga – a professor of Black Studies at California State University, Long Beach, USA. He created it after the Watts riots as a way to bring African-Americans together as a community.  He gave it the name Kwanzaa -a word that is taken from the phrase “matunda ya kwanza” and is Swahili for “first-fruits.”

Kwanzaa was originally envisioned by Dr. Maulana Karenga as an oppositional alternative to Christmas. However, in later years he changed his position as to not alienate African-American Christians and later stated that Kwanzaa was not created to give people an alternative to their own religious holidays.

From 1966 through the end of the 20th century, the idea and practice of Kwanzaa began to slowly increase in popularity across the United States. Then its popularity began to increase dramatically after the start of the 21st century as the idea and practices of this holiday began to not only spread through conventional media but also through the Internet.  In 2004, a study showed that a little less than 5 million African-Americans planned to celebrate the holiday that year. However, two years later, another study showed that almost 28 million African-Americans had planned on celebrating the holiday in 2006. In 2009, the popularity of Kwanzaa was further bolstered by the release of the documentary film about Kwanzaa called the “Black Candle,” a film narrated by Maya Angelou and directed by M. K. Asante. Since then, Kwanzaa has not only spread all across North American but also parts of Europe and Africa as well.

Kwanzaa Customs & Celebrations

Kwanzaa celebrations vary from family to family. Some families stick with strictly Kwanzaa related practices, while other families mix elements of Kwanzaa into their Christmas celebrations. However, most Kwanzaa celebrations are based on Nguzo Saba – or the seven principles of Kwanzaa.

The Seven Principles:

  • Umoja (Unity): Striving for and maintaining unity in the family and the community.
  • Kujichagulia (Self-Determination): Defining oneself and speaking for oneself
  • Ujima (Collective Work and Responsibility): Building and maintaining a community and making our brother’s and sister’s problems our own and solve them together
  • Ujamaa (Cooperative Economics): Building and maintaining our businesses for ourselves and each other
  • Nia (Purpose): To build and develop our collective communities together
  • Kuumba (Creativity): To do whatever we can to leave our communities more beautiful than when we inherited them
  • Imani (Faith): To believe with our hearts in our people, our families and the righteousness of our struggle

The Seven Symbols:

Kwanzaa celebrations usually include a special mat called a Mkeka in which all of the other symbols are placed. On this mate are placed a candle holder called a Kinara, seven candles which are collectively called Mishumaa Saba, mazao (fruits, nuts and vegetables), a unity cup called Kikombe cha Umoja, an ear of corn called Vibunzi and Zawadi or gifts.

Mkeka
The place mat, or Mkeka, is traditionally made from either straw or cloth. It symbolizes African history, tradition and culture.  All of the other six elements are placed on the Mkeka.

Mazao
Fruits, nuts and vegetables are laid out to represent the historical foundation for this holiday – the gathering of people after a harvest. It represents bounty, joy, sharing and allows people to give thanks for their gifts.

Kinara
The Kinara, or candle holder, can be made of any material but is usually handcrafted from wood or other natural materials. This candle holder represents the ancestors and the mishumaa saba are placed in them to represent the principles of Kwanzaa – which rise from the ancestors.

The Mishumaa Saba
Mishumaa saba features seven candles. Three of them are red, three of them are green and one of them is black. The three red candles represent the principles of Ujamaa, Kuumba and Kujichagulia, and they are placed to the left of the green candles. The three green candles represent the principles of Ujima, Imani and Nia. The black candle symbolizes Umoja and is lit on December 26th.

Kikombe Cha Umoja
Kikombe cha umoja is a unity cup that is traditionally used to perform the ceremonious libation ritual, otherwise known as tambiko. This ritual is performed on the 6th day of Kwanzaa. In some African societies, the libation is poured for the living dead whose souls stay connected with the earth until it is tilled. During the Feast of Karamu, this unity cup is passed to family members and guests–all of whom drink from it to promote unity with one another. The next thing that happens is the eldest person pours a libation for the four winds (north, south, east and west). This last portion of the libation is reserved for the ancestors.

Vibunzi & Mihindi
Vibunzi is an ear of corn that is used to represent fertility. Vibunzi refers to one ear of corn. If more than one is present, then they are referred to as Mihindi. An ear is present for each child in the family. This is to show the importance of children to society and how they are the seed bearers of the culture into this future.

Zawadi
On the seventh day, gifts are exchanged with immediate family to reward accomplishments and commitments and is also exchanged with guests. It is recommended that these gifts are handmade to promote self-determination and to avoid the commercialism of the Christmas season. Accepting a gift makes the receiver an important part of the family and promotes the principle of Umoja – otherwise known as unity.

Where is Kwanzaa celebrated?

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