Tag: Diabetic

Snacks For Diabetics

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/best-snacks-for-diabetes#section17

1. Hard-Boiled Eggs

Hard-boiled eggs are a super healthy snack for people with diabetes.

Their protein content really makes them shine. One large hard-boiled egg provides 6 grams of protein, which is helpful for diabetes because it keeps your blood sugar from rising too high after you eat (1, 2Trusted Source).

In one study, 65 people with type 2 diabetes ate two eggs daily for 12 weeks.

By the end of the study, they experienced significant reductions in their fasting blood sugar levels. They also had lower hemoglobin A1c, which is a measure of long-term blood sugar control (3Trusted Source).

Eggs are known to promote fullness, an important aspect of managing type 2 diabetes. This disease is associated with a greater likelihood of becoming overweight and developing heart disease (4Trusted Source, 5Trusted Source, 6Trusted Source, 7Trusted Source).

You can enjoy a hard-boiled egg or two for a snack on their own, or garnish them with a healthy topping like guacamole.

2. Yogurt with Berries

Yogurt with berries is an excellent diabetes-friendly snack for a variety of reasons.

First, the antioxidants in berries may reduce inflammation and prevent damage to cells of the pancreas, the organ responsible for releasing hormones that lower blood sugar levels (8Trusted Source, 9Trusted Source).

Additionally, berries are a great source of fiber. For example, a 1-cup (148-gram) serving of blueberries provides 4 grams of fiber, which helps slow digestion and stabilize blood sugar levels after eating (10Trusted Source, 11Trusted Source).

Yogurt is also known for its ability to lower blood sugar levels. This is partly due to the probiotics it contains, which may improve your body’s ability to metabolize foods that contain sugar (12Trusted Source).

Furthermore, yogurt is rich in protein, which is well-known for helping keep blood sugar levels under control. Greek yogurt is especially high in protein (13Trusted Source).

Yogurt and berries taste great together as a snack, as the sweetness of the berries helps balance out the tartness of the yogurt. You can simply mix them together, or layer them on top of each other to make a parfait.

3. Handful of Almonds

Almonds are very nutritious and convenient to snack on.

A 1-ounce (28-gram) serving of almonds provides more than 15 vitamins and minerals, including 32% of the recommended daily intake for manganese, 19% for magnesium and 17% for riboflavin (14).

Research has shown almonds may help control blood sugar in people with diabetes. In one study, 58 people who included almonds in their diets every day for 24 weeks experienced a 3% decrease in their long-term blood sugar levels (15Trusted Source).

In another study, 20 adults with diabetes who consumed 60 grams of almonds daily for four weeks experienced a 9% reduction in their blood sugar levels.

They also had decreased levels of insulin, a hormone that may worsen diabetes if levels are consistently high (16Trusted Source).

The ability of almonds to help stabilize blood sugar is likely due to the combination of fiber, protein and healthy fats they contain, all of which are known to have an important role in diabetes management (14).

What’s more, almonds have been shown to benefit heart health by reducing cholesterol levels and may also promote weight management, both of which are major factors in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes (16Trusted Source, 17Trusted Source, 18Trusted Source, 19Trusted Source).

Since almonds are quite high in calories, it is best to limit your portion size to about a handful when eating them as a snack.

4. Veggies and Hummus

Hummus is a creamy spread made from chickpeas. It tastes great when paired with raw veggies.

Both vegetables and hummus are good sources of fiber, vitamins and minerals.

Additionally, hummus provides lots of protein, with 3 grams per tablespoon (15 grams). All of these properties may benefit blood sugar control in people with diabetes (20, 21).

One study found that individuals who consumed at least 1 ounce of hummus at a meal had blood sugar and insulin levels that were four times lower than a group that consumed white bread at a meal (22Trusted Source).

You can experiment with dipping several types of vegetables in hummus, such as broccoli, cauliflower, carrots and bell peppers.

5. Avocado

If you have diabetes, snacking on avocado may help manage your blood sugar levels.

The high fiber content and monounsaturated fatty acids in avocados make them a diabetes-friendly food. These factors may prevent your blood sugar from spiking after a meal (23Trusted Source, 24).

One study found that individuals with type 2 diabetes who included sources of monounsaturated fatty acids in their diets on a regular basis experienced significant improvements in their blood sugar levels (25Trusted Source).

You can eat avocado on its own, or make it into a dip such as guacamole. Since avocados are quite high in calories, it is best to stick with a serving size of one-fourth to one-half an avocado.

6. Sliced Apples with Peanut Butter

Sliced apples paired with nut butter make for a delicious and healthy snack that’s great for people with diabetes.

Apples are rich in several nutrients, including B vitamins, vitamin C and potassium, while peanut butter provides significant amounts of vitamin E, magnesium and manganese, all of which are known to help manage diabetes (26, 27, 28Trusted Source, 29Trusted Source).

Both apples and peanut butter are also very high in fiber. One medium apple combined with 1 ounce (28 grams) of peanut butter provides almost 7 grams of fiber, which is helpful for keeping your blood sugar under control (11Trusted Source, 27, 30Trusted Source).

Apples have been studied specifically for their potential role in diabetes management. The polyphenol antioxidants they contain are thought to protect pancreatic cells from damage that often worsens diabetes (30Trusted Source, 31Trusted Source).

You can also try pairing other types of fruit with peanut butter, such as bananas or pears, for similar health benefits.

7. Beef Sticks

Beef sticks are convenient, portable and diabetes-friendly.

What makes beef sticks an excellent snack for people with diabetes are their high protein and low carb contents.

Most beef sticks provide around 6 grams of protein per ounce (28 grams), which may help keep your blood sugar under control (32).

If possible, you should choose beef sticks that are made with grass-fed beef. Compared to grain-fed beef, grass-fed beef is higher in omega-3 fatty acids, which are known for their potential role in keeping blood sugar levels stable (33Trusted Source, 34Trusted Source).

It is important to note that beef sticks can be high in sodium, which can lead to high blood pressure in some people if consumed in excess. Thus, if you eat beef sticks, make sure to consume them in moderation.

8. Roasted Chickpeas

Chickpeas, also known as garbanzo beans, are an incredibly healthy legume.

There are close to 15 grams of protein and 13 grams of fiber in a 1-cup (164-gram) serving of chickpeas, making them an excellent snack for people with diabetes (35).

Research has shown that consuming chickpeas on a regular basis may play a role in preventing the progression of diabetes, thanks to their potential to help manage blood sugar levels (36Trusted Source).

In one study, 19 adults who consumed a chickpea-based meal daily for six weeks had significantly lower blood sugar and insulin levels after eating, compared to individuals who ate a wheat-based meal (37Trusted Source).

One way to make chickpeas easy to snack on is by roasting them, which makes them crunchy and convenient. They taste great when roasted with olive oil and seasonings of your choice.

9. Turkey Roll-Up

Turkey roll-ups are an easy snack to make.

They are essentially a breadless sandwich wrap consisting of turkey breast slices wrapped around low-carb contents of your choice, such as cheese and veggies.

Turkey roll-ups are a great snack option for people with diabetes due to their low carb and high protein contents. One wrap provides about 5 grams of protein, which will help prevent your blood sugar levels from rising too high (2Trusted Source).

In addition, the protein in turkey roll-ups may help lower your appetite, which is beneficial for preventing overeating and promoting weight management. Both of these are key factors in controlling type 2 diabetes (2Trusted Source, 38Trusted Source).

To make a turkey roll-up, simply spread a tablespoon (about 10 grams) of cream cheese onto a slice of turkey and wrap it around sliced veggies, such as cucumbers or bell peppers.

10. Cottage Cheese

Cottage cheese is a great snack for people with diabetes.

A half-cup (about 112-gram) serving of small-curd cottage cheese provides several vitamins and minerals, in addition to almost 13 grams of protein and only 4 grams of carbs (39).

Interestingly, eating cottage cheese may help manage your blood sugar.

In one study, men who ate 25 grams of cottage cheese with 50 grams of sugar had 38% lower blood sugar afterward, compared to those who consumed sugar alone (40Trusted Source).

The blood sugar-lowering effects of cottage cheese are often attributed to its high protein content (41Trusted Source, 42Trusted Source, 43Trusted Source).

If you choose regular cottage cheese rather than reduced-fat varieties, you’ll also take advantage of the blood-sugar-lowering properties of fat (41Trusted Source, 42Trusted Source, 43Trusted Source).

Cottage cheese tastes great plain, but you can also combine it with fruit for extra nutrients and fiber.

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11. Cheese and Whole-Grain Crackers

“Cracker sandwiches” are a popular snack, and you can make them on your own by topping a few whole-grain crackers with cheese slices.

They are a good snack choice if you have diabetes. While crackers can be high in carbs, the fat in the cheese and fiber in the crackers may prevent them from spiking your blood sugar (10Trusted Source, 11Trusted Source, 44Trusted Source, 45Trusted Source).

Fat intake from dairy products such as cheese may slow the digestion of carbs, reduce insulin levels and promote the release of hormones that lower blood sugar, such as GLP-1 (44Trusted Source, 45Trusted Source, 46Trusted Source).

Make sure you choose your crackers carefully, as many brands are high in refined flour and added sugar, which may negatively affect blood sugar levels. To avoid these ingredients, always choose crackers made with 100% whole grains.

12. Tuna Salad

Tuna salad is made by combining tuna with mayonnaise and other ingredients, such as celery and onions.

A 3-ounce (84-gram) serving of tuna provides 22 grams of protein and no carbs, which makes it a great snack option if you have diabetes (47).

Additionally, tuna is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to help manage diabetes due to their potential to lower inflammation and improve blood sugar control (48Trusted Source).

You can make tuna salad even healthier and higher in protein by mixing it with cottage cheese or yogurt, rather than mayonnaise.

13. Popcorn

Popcorn is a very popular and healthy whole-grain snack food.

It has been deemed one of the best snack foods for people with diabetes, partly because of its low calorie density. One cup (8 grams) of air-popped popcorn contains just 31 calories (48Trusted Source, 49).

Snacking on low-calorie foods may aid weight control, which is known to promote decreased blood sugar levels and better overall management of type 2 diabetes (50Trusted Source, 51Trusted Source).

In addition, popcorn provides 1 gram of fiber per 1-cup (8-gram) serving, which is another property that makes it a diabetes-friendly food (49).

Since most prepackaged popcorn is full of salt, trans fats and other unhealthy ingredients, it is healthiest to air-pop your own.

14. Chia Seed Pudding

Chia seed pudding is made by soaking chia seeds in milk until the mixture achieves a pudding-like consistency.

It’s a healthy snack for people with diabetes because chia seeds are rich in many nutrients that help stabilize blood sugar, including protein, fiber and omega-3 fatty acids (52).

The fiber in chia seeds can absorb a significant amount of water, which may help control diabetes by slowing down the digestion process and release of sugar into the blood (53Trusted Source).

Additionally, eating chia seeds has been shown to help lower triglyceride levels, which can be good for heart health. This is beneficial because individuals with diabetes tend to have a higher risk of developing heart disease (54Trusted Source, 55Trusted Source).

15. No-Bake Energy Bites

Energy bites are a fantastic snack idea for people with diabetes.

They are a delicious and healthy snack made by combining and rolling ingredients of your choice into balls. Some common ingredients include nut butter, oats and seeds, such as in this recipe.

Most of the ingredients used to make energy bites are high in fiber, protein and healthy fats — three key nutrients known for keeping blood sugar stable (34Trusted Source, 56Trusted Source, 57Trusted Source).

An added benefit of energy bites is their convenience. They don’t require baking, and you can carry them with you easily while you’re on the go.

16. Black Bean Salad

Black bean salad is a healthy snack.

To make it, simply combine cooked black beans with chopped vegetables, such as onions and peppers, and toss them in a vinaigrette dressing.

Since black beans are rich in fiber and protein, they make a healthy snack for individuals with diabetes. Eating them may prevent blood sugar spikes and help lower insulin levels after meals (58Trusted Source, 59Trusted Source, 60Trusted Source, 61).

In one study, 12 people who consumed black beans with a meal had up to 33% lower insulin levels five hours after eating, compared to individuals who did not consume black beans (60Trusted Source).

Black beans have also been shown to benefit heart health by helping lower cholesterol and blood pressure levels (62Trusted Source).

Thank you for reading 🙂

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Diabetic Dog Treats Recipe

Ingredients
Makes: 80 diabetic friendly treats

  • 680g beef liver
  • 60g wholemeal flour
  • 2 eggs

Prep:5min  ›  Cook:15min  ›  Ready in:20min 

  1. Preheat the oven to 180 C / Gas 4. Line a 25x40cm (10×38 in) baking tray with baking parchment.
  2. Place the liver into a food processor. Pulse until finely chopped. If you have room, add the flour and eggs, and process until smooth. Otherwise, transfer to a bowl, and stir in the flour and eggs using a wooden spoon. Spread evenly in the prepared tray.
  3. Bake for 15 minutes in the preheated oven, or until the center is firm. Cool, and cut into squares using a pizza cutter. The treats will have a consistency similar to a sponge. Store in a sealed container in the fridge.

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7 Day Diabetic Meal Plan

Day 1

Breakfast (294 calories, 41 g carbohydrates)

• 1/2 cup oats cooked in 1/2 cup each 2% milk and water
• 1 medium plum, chopped
• 4 walnut halves, chopped
Top oats with plum and walnuts.

A.M. Snack (96 calories, 18 g carbohydrates)

• 3/4 cup blueberries
• 1/4 nonfat plain Greek yogurt
Top blueberries with yogurt.

Lunch (319 calories, 37 g carbohydrates)

Turkey & Apple Cheddar Melt
• 2 slices whole-wheat bread
• 2 tsp. whole-grain mustard, divided
• 1/2 medium apple, sliced
• 2 oz. low-sodium deli turkey
• 2 Tbsp. shredded Cheddar cheese, divided
• 1 cup mixed greens
Top one slice of bread with 1 tsp. mustard, apple, turkey and 1 Tbsp. cheese. Top the other slice of bread with the remaining 1 tsp. mustard and 1 Tbsp.cheese. Toast sandwich halves face-up in a toaster oven until the cheese begins to melt and bubble. Add the mixed greens to the sandwich just before serving.

*Look for a deli turkey with less than 150 mg sodium per 1-ounce serving.

P.M. Snack (58 calories, 16 g carbohydrates)

• 1/2 medium apple, sliced
• 1/2 tsp. honey
• Pinch of cinnamon
Drizzle the apple slices with honey and sprinkle with cinnamon.

Dinner (417 calories, 54 g carbohydrates)

• 2 1/2 cups Vegetable Weight-Loss Soup
• 1 serving Rosemary-Goat Cheese Toast

Make Ahead Tip: Save 1 3/4 cups soup for lunch on Day 2, and another 2 cups for lunch on Day 6.

Daily Total: 1,185 calories, 60 g protein, 166 g carbohydrates, 29 g fiber, 66 g sugar, 35 g fat, 9 g saturated fat, 1,539 mg sodium

Day 2

Breakfast (297 calories, 33 g carbohydrates)

• 1 serving Everything Bagel Avocado Toast
• 1/2 cup blueberries
• 25 pistachios

A.M. Snack (52 calories, 13 g carbohydrates)

• 10 cherries

Lunch (314 calories, 47 g carbohydrates)

• 1 3/4 cups Vegetable Weight-Loss Soup
• 2 slices whole-wheat baguette (cut ¼ inch thick)

P.M. Snack (95 calories, 25 g carbohydrates)

Cinnamon Apples
• 1 medium apple, sliced
• Cinnamon to taste
Sprinkle apple slices with cinnamon.

Dinner (420 calories, 48 g carbohydrates)

• 2 1/2 cups Lentil & Roasted Vegetable Salad with Green Goddess Dressing
• 1 serving Frozen Chocolate-Banana Bites, to enjoy after dinner

Make-Ahead Tip: Cook an extra 1/2 cup of lentils to have for lunch on Day 3.

Daily Total: 1,179 calories, 39 g protein, 166 g carbohydrates, 35 g fiber, 65 g sugar, 47 g fat, 9 g saturated fat, 1,425 mg sodium

Day 3

Breakfast (289 calories, 27 g carbohydrates)

• 1 serving Yogurt with Blueberries & Honey
• 1 tsp. ground flaxseed
• 6 walnut halves, chopped or whole
Add flaxseed to yogurt for an added boost of fiber and omega-3s. Top with chopped walnuts, or leave the walnuts whole to have on the side.

A.M. Snack (30 calories, 8 g carbohydrates)

• 1 medium plum

Lunch (347 calories, 48 g carbohydrates)

• 3 1/2 cups Mixed Greens with Lentils & Sliced Apple

P.M. Snack (62 calories, 15 g carbohydrates)

• 1 medium orange

Dinner (490 calories, 52 g carbohydrates)

• 1 1/3 cups Chicken Sausage & Peppers
• 1/2 cup cooked brown rice
• 1/2 tsp. extra-virgin olive oil
• 1/2 tsp. no-salt-added Italian seasoning
• Salt to taste
Season rice with oil, Italian seasoning and salt. Serve chicken, sausage & peppers over the rice.

• 1 1/2 cups mixed greens
• 1/4 cup shredded carrot
• 1/4 cup sliced cucumbers
• 1 Tbsp. Garlic-Oregano Vinaigrette, or a premade Italian salad dressing*
Combine greens, carrot, cucumber and vinaigrette.

*When buying premade salad dressings, look for one made without added sugars. And, choose one made with olive oil or canola oil.

Make Ahead Tip: Cook an extra 1/2 cup of brown rice to have for dinner on Day 7. You can substitute brown rice for the farro in the dinner recipe for Day 4. If you choose to do so, cook an extra 2 cups of rice tonight to save yourself time tomorrow.

Daily Total: 1,218 calories, 63 g protein, 151 g carbohydrates, 31 g fiber, 75 g sugar, 45 g fat, 9 g saturated fat, 830 mg sodium

Day 4

Breakfast (295 calories, 42 g carbohydrates)

• 1/2 cup oats cooked in 1/2 cup each 2% milk and water
• 1 tsp. ground flaxseed
• 1 medium plum, chopped
• 3 walnut halves, chopped
Mix oatmeal and flaxseed; top with plum and walnuts.

A.M. Snack (52 calories, 13 g carbohydrates)

• 10 cherries

Lunch (350 calories, 46 g carbohydrates)

• 1 serving Veggie & Hummus Sandwich
• 3 dried apricots

P.M. Snack (62 calories, 15 g carbohydrates)

• 1 medium orange

Dinner (450 calories, 41 g carbohydrates)

• 1 serving Lemon-Herb Salmon with Caponata & Farro*

*Don’t have farro? You can substitute another whole grain you have on hand, like brown rice.

Daily Total: 1,209 calories, 61 g protein, 158 g carbohydrates, 32 g fiber, 61 g sugar, 43 g fat, 8 g saturated fat, 1,032 mg sodium

Day 5

Breakfast (276 calories, 44 g carbohydrates)

• 1 serving Everything Bagel Avocado Toast
• 20 cherries

A.M. Snack (51 calories, 13 g carbohydrates)

• 6 dried apricots

Lunch (350 calories, 41 g carbohydrates)

Turkey & Pear Pita Melt
• 1/2 large whole-wheat pita round (save the other half for lunch on Day 7)
• 3 1/2 oz. low-sodium deli turkey
• 1/2 medium pear, sliced
• 2 Tbsp. shredded Cheddar cheese
• 1 cup mixed greens
Stuff pita pocket with turkey, pear and cheese. Toast in a toaster oven until the cheese starts to melt. Add greens to the pita just before eating.

• 1 medium plum

P.M. Snack (52 calories, 14 g carbohydrates)

Cinnamon Pears
• 1/2 medium pear, sliced
• Cinnamon to taste
Sprinkle pear slices with cinnamon.

Dinner (448 calories, 38 g carbohydrates)

• 1 serving Spaghetti Squash & Meatballs
• 1 slice whole-wheat baguette (cut 1/4 inch thick), toasted
• 1/2 Tbsp. goat cheese
• 1/4 tsp. fresh chopped rosemary
Toast baguette and top with cheese and rosemary.

Daily Total: 1,176 calories, 64 g protein, 151 g carbohydrates, 29 g fiber, 74 g sugar, 37 g fat, 9 g saturated fat, 1,738 mg sodium

Day 6

Breakfast (291 calories, 28 g carbohydrates)

• 1 serving Yogurt with Blueberries & Honey
• 2 tsp. ground flaxseed
• 5 walnut halves, chopped
Mix yogurt and flaxseed. Serve topped with walnuts.

A.M. Snack (72 calories, 18 g carbohydrates)

• 14 cherries

Lunch (337 calories, 42 g carbohydrates)

• 2 1/2 cups Vegetable Weight-Loss Soup

P.M. Snack (62 calories, 15 g carbohydrates)

• 1 medium orange

Dinner (422 calories, 53 g carbohydrates)

• 1 serving Apple-Glazed Chicken with Spinach
• 1/2 cup Steamed Butternut Squash
• 2 tsp. extra-virgin olive oil
• 1/2 tsp. fresh thyme or 1/8 tsp. dried
• Salt and pepper to taste
Toss squash with oil and thyme. Season with salt and pepper to taste.

Daily Total: 1,184 calories, 78 g protein, 156 g carbohydrates, 27 g total fiber, 88 g sugar, 34 g fat, 5 g saturated fat, 1,541 mg sodium

Day 7

Make Ahead Tip: Tonight’s dinner is a slow-cooker recipe. Make sure you start it early enough in the day that it will be ready in time for dinner.

Breakfast (300 calories, 40 g carbohydrates)

• 2 Blueberry-Pecan Pancakes
• 3 Tbsp. blueberries, fresh or frozen
• 2 tsp. ground flaxseed
Microwave blueberries until soft and sauce-like, about 1 minute. Stir in the flaxseed for an extra fiber kick, and serve with the pancakes.

A.M. Snack (62 calories, 15 g carbohydrates)

• 1 medium orange

Lunch (325 calories, 35 g carbohydrates)

• 2 cups mixed greens
• 1/2 cup sliced cucumber
• 1/4 cup grated carrot
• 1 1/2 Tbsp. Garlic-Oregano Vinaigrette, or a premade Italian salad dressing
Combine greens, cucumber, carrot and vinaigrette.

• 1/2 large whole-wheat pita round, toasted
• 1/4 cup hummus

P.M. Snack (95 calories, 25 g carbohydrates)

• 1 medium apple

Dinner (444 calories, 48 g carbohydrates)

• 1 serving Mushroom-Sauced Pork Chops
• 1/2 cup cooked brown rice
• 3/4 cup Roasted Brussels Sprouts with Sun-Dried Tomato Pesto

Daily Total: 1,224 calories, 54 g protein, 164 g carbohydrates, 28 g fiber, 57 g sugar, 44 g fat, 7 g saturated fat, 1,270 mg sodium

Thank you for reading 🙂

Nocturnal hypoglycemia

Thanks to the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), it is now well recognized that intensive glycemic control can reduce the risk of diabetes complications. Despite this knowledge, one of the biggest barriers in reaching glycemic targets is the increased risk of hypoglycemia that comes with tighter blood glucose control.

Hypoglycemia is often reported to be one of the most feared complications of diabetes. With nocturnal hypoglycemia being especially worrisome for those who live alone or travel alone. It can also be concerning (not to mention disruptive) for a significant other that you share a bed with.

What is nocturnal hypoglycemia?

  • Nocturnal hypoglycemia is low blood sugar that occurs overnight while you are asleep. It is common to sleep through a low blood sugar when it occurs during sleep.

How common is nocturnal hypoglycemia?

  • According to a journal article from Medscape General Medicine:
      • During the DCCT 43 percent of all hypoglycemia episodes and 55 percent of severe [hypoglycemic] episodes reported occurred during sleep. Incidence rates vary from 12 to 56 percent, however, because 49 to 100 percent of episodes occur without symptoms the actual incidence may be much higher.1 

Why is nocturnal hypoglycemia concerning?

  • Nocturnal hypoglycemia can be especially dangerous because an individual is unlikely to recognize symptoms or wake up during an episode.
  • Undetected nocturnal hypoglycemia is a risk factor for hypoglycemia unawareness:
    • Hypoglycemia unawareness is low blood glucose that occurs without symptoms, therefore, the person is unaware of the drop in their blood glucose, ultimately delaying treatment.
  • Nocturnal hypoglycemia may also result in physical injury, poor quality of life and possibly impairment in cognitive function.
  • Severe hypoglycemia can cause seizures and unconsciousness, requiring emergency care.

Why does low blood glucose go undetected at night?

  • When low blood glucose occurs counterregulatory hormones (such as glucagon and epinephrine) are released to raise blood glucose. The release of these hormones provides the initial symptoms (shaking, sweating, rapid heartbeat, etc.) that an individual may feel when their blood glucose is low. Such symptoms will likely trigger an individual to treat low blood glucose.
  • However, while asleep such symptoms/signals are suppressed and/or go unnoticed.
  • There is also evidence that the release of counterregulatory hormones is suppressed to some extent during sleep.

What increases the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia?

  • Any of the following medications may cause hypoglycemia (including nocturnal hypoglycemia):
    • Insulin
    • Sulfonylureas
      • (Diabeta, Micronase, Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL, Amaryl, Glynase)
    • Meglitinides
      • (Prandin, Starlix)
    • Exercise (especially if exercise was longer or more intense than usual)
    • Alcohol (especially if consumed before bed)
    • Low blood glucose in the past 24 hours

Signs and symptoms of nocturnal hypoglycemia:

  • Vivid dreams or nightmares
  • Restless sleep
  • Morning headache
  • Night Sweats
  • Mood changes
  • Fatigue
  • Convulsions

Prevention of nocturnal hypoglycemia:

    • Check your blood glucose before going to bed.
      • Discuss with your health care provider a safe blood glucose target for bedtime.
      • Many people feel comfortable if their blood glucose is at least 100 mg/dL before going to sleep.
    • If your blood sugar is less than 100 mg/dL (discuss a blood glucose target for bedtime with your health care provider) eat at low to moderate glycemic index snack before going to bed
      • Whole wheat bread with peanut butter or whole grain crackers with a slice of cheese
  • If you were more active than usual, consumed alcohol in the evening, or had low blood glucose during the day, set an alarm to check your blood glucose at 2 a.m. or 3 a.m. in the morning.
  • If you currently take the intermediate-acting insulin, NPH, speak with your health care provider about switching to long-acting insulin such as Lantus, Levemir, or Tresiba. Long-acting insulin has a flat action profile and does not have variable peaks (like NPH does) therefore the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced.
  • If you have a history of nocturnal hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia unawareness or have experienced severe low blood glucose, a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) may be helpful.
    • A CGM may also be beneficial if you live alone or travel alone as you can set an alarm for when your blood glucose drops below a set threshold (i.e. <70 mg/dL).

*Insurance coverage can be a challenge*

Treatment of nocturnal hypoglycemia:

  • If you are woken up by low blood glucose, first check your blood glucose to confirm it is low (<70 mg/dL).
  • Treat low blood glucose with quick acting carbs such as juice (4 ounces) or glucose tablets (3 to 4 tablets).
  • Retest blood glucose in 15 minutes. If blood glucose remains below 70 mg/dL, repeat the above treatment.
  • Once your blood glucose is above 70 mg/dL, if your typical breakfast time is still several hours away have a small snack that includes both a carb and a protein, such as a peanut butter crackers.
  • Make sure to discuss with your health care provider specifics on how he/she would like you to manage/treat nocturnal hypoglycemia.
  • If you take insulin to speak with your health care provider about getting a prescription for emergency Glucagon.

Read More

Thank you for reading 🙂

Diabetic Information About Exercises

Fitness & Physical Activity

If you have type 2 diabetes, regular physical activity should be an integral part of your overall care plan. Not only will a program of regular physical activity improve glycemic control, it is a an important part of maintaining a healthy weight and reducing your risk for cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke) and other health complications for which people with diabetes are at high risk. Physical activity also has long list of other benefits. It is a great way to lift your mood and spirits, improve your outlook, and improve your sleep. If you join a regular exercise group (for example, a walking group or a movement class) you can make your physical activity a fun, social experience, as well.1

What do studies tell us about the benefits of physical activity for people with diabetes?

The short-term and long-term benefits of physical activity for people with diabetes have been demonstrated in a variety of well-controlled studies.

Improved insulin sensitivity. In people with type 2 diabetes, one of the short-term benefits of physical activity is improved sensitivity to insulin. As a person exercises, muscles require glucose for energy. This has the effect of helping our bodies make better use of the insulin that we produce so that glucose can be made available to the muscle cells where it is needed.1,2

With type 1 diabetes, where people make very little or no insulin and insulin injections are required, physical activity can have different effects on blood glucose. The effect will depend on how much insulin is present in the body at the time of physical activity and the timing of the most recent insulin injection1,2

Improved glycemic control. A number of studies have shown the benefit of regular physical activity on glycemic control (blood glucose). An analysis of results from several studies measuring the effects of physical activity on people with type 2 diabetes found that a regular exercise program resulted in reductions in A1C values by 0.5% to 0.7% compared with a control group (a comparison group made up of people with type 2 diabetes who did not engage in exercise). 1,2

Results from some studies suggest that an exercise program that combines both aerobic and resistance training (see below for examples of these types of exercise) may achieve the greatest benefits in terms of glycemic control. For instance, in one study conducted in 252 adults with type 2 diabetes, the combination of resistance (weight training) and aerobic (running, walking) training had a greater reduction in A1C (almost 1% point compared with a control group that did not engage in exercise) than either type of physical activity alone.3

Overall health benefits. In the Look AHEAD Study, a 4-year randomized, controlled trial conducted in 4,503 adults with type 2 diabetes who had a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher, an intensive program of lifestyle modification, including a program of regular physical activity, resulted in a range of health benefits, including an increased likelihood of remission of type 2 diabetes to prediabetes, improved blood glucose control, improvements in blood pressure, lipids, improvements in quality of life, improved mobility and reduced muscle and joint problems, and decreased risk for a range of diabetes-related complications (e.g., kidney disease, retinopathy).4
Although regular moderate physical activity alone is probably not sufficient for achieving and maintaining weight loss, as part of a comprehensive program of lifestyle modification, including healthy eating and calorie restriction, physical activity can be an important part of achieving and maintaining a healthy weight.4,5

Other studies have also shown the significant benefits of physical activity in terms of cardiovascular health in people with type 2 diabetes. The Nurses’ Health Study, a large, health study conducted among nurses in the US, found that among 5,125 female participants with type 2 diabetes, those who engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity for at least 4 hours per week decreased their risk of cardiovascular disease (including stroke and coronary heart disease) by 40%.6 In the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, a study conducted in 2,316 men with type 2 diabetes, risk of death from cardiovascular disease and other causes was 1.7 to 6.6 times higher among participants who were defined as low-fit compared with those who were high-fit.7,8

Before you start an physical activity routine

There are many physical activity options for people with diabetes, including walking, cycling, swimming, rowing, and running. Your healthcare provider will determine whether it is necessary to do a pre-exercise examination, depending on the intensity of the physical activity your are planning to engage in and other factors, such as your age and existing health problems. For most people, with type 2 diabetes who want to engage in low-intensity physical activity, such as walking, no pre-exercise examination is necessary. However, if you are an older person not used to physical activity, you will benefit from an assessment.1

Since physical activity affects blood glucose, you should get a sense of how your exercise routine affects your blood glucose by measuring levels before, during, and after your exercise routine. This will allow you to know how you will need to adjust your insulin dose (if you take insulin) or to develop a strategy for eating foods that will keep your blood glucose at a normal level during and after physical activity. Make sure to drink adequate amounts of liquids before, during, and after physical activity to avoid becoming dehydrated. In people with diabetes, dehydration can have a direct impact on blood glucose levels.9
Learn more about factors to consider before I start a training program.

Three basic types exercises you need

Type

Examples

Resistance Training
  • Weight training
  • Yoga
  • Resistance training
Endurance (aerobic) training
  • Running
  • Swimming
  • Cycling
  • Walking
Flexibility Training
  • Yoga
  • Stretching (passive and active)
  • Pilates

What are my options for physical activity?

The list of activities that you can engage in to get exercise is almost limitless. From swimming and jogging to yoga and dancing, there is a form of physical activity that is fun and rewarding for every person.

Learn more about different types of exercise options:

There are three basic types of exercise: resistance training, endurance (aerobic) training, and flexibility (range of motion) training. Ideally, you should combine all three to get the full benefit of a total workout. You’ll find that certain activities are sources for some or all of the three types of exercise you need. For instance, yoga and Tai Chi can be used to increase or maintain both strength and range of motion. Some water aerobics programs are designed to provide aerobic and strength training at the same time.

However you mix these forms of physical activity, you should aim to get 150 minutes per week of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic training, spread out during at least 3 days per week, with no more than 2 consecutive days between training sessions.1 Aerobic training of moderate intensity involves getting your heart rate up to 65% of its maximum.

Learn some pointers on how to start an aerobic training exercise routine

A good sign that your endurance training is vigorous enough is if you sweat and feel an increase in your heart rate and breathing. A good tip for how hard you should extend yourself is to find a pace at which you are slightly short of breath, but can still carry on a conversation. Determining your target heart rate is also a way to make sure that you are working hard enough, but not overdoing it. Check out the simple target heart rate calculator to find out what you should be aiming for during your workout.

 

Figuring out your target heart rate (HR)

Subtract your age from 220 for your maximum HR 220 – YOUR AGE (example: 50) = 170
Subtract your resting HR from your max HR 170 – RESTING HR (example: 70) = 100
Multiply the answer by 0.7 and 0.5 0.7 X 100 = 70 (70% of max reserve HR)
0.5 X 100 = 50 (50% of max reserve HR)
Add your resting HR to each of these numbers to get your target HR range 70 + 70 = 140 beats per minute
50 + 70 = 120 beats per minute
While you are exercising your heart rate should stay between 120 and 140 beats

per minute

https://type2diabetes.com/fitness-and-exercise/

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